Health Insurance

Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses.  By estimating the overall risk of health care and health system expenses, among a targeted group, an insurer can develop a routine finance structure, such as a monthly premium or payroll tax, to ensure that money is available to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement.

The benefit is administered by a central organization such as a government agency, private business, or not-for-profit entity.  According to the Health Insurance Association of America, health insurance is defined as “coverage that provides for the payments of benefits as a result of sickness or injury.  It includes insurance for losses from accident, medical expense, disability, or accidental death and dismemberment”

A health insurance policy is:

A contract between an insurance provider  and an individual.  The contract can be renewable annually, monthly or lifelong in the case of private insurance, or be mandatory for all citizens in the case of national plans.  The type and amount of health care costs that will be covered by the health insurance provider are specified in writing, in a member contract or “Evidence of Coverage” booklet for private insurance, or in a national health policy for public insurance.

All countries are different and have guidelines that are unique to the country that you live in.

In the United States health insurance is provided by an employer.  The company generally advertises that they have one or many of the big insurance companies that you can choose from.  The specific benefits or coverage details are found in the Summary Plan Description (SPD).  An appeal must go through the insurance company, then to the Employer’s Plan Fiduciary.

Premium: The amount the policy-holder or their sponsor (e.g. an employer) pays to the health plan to purchase health coverage.

Deductible: The amount that the insured must pay out-of-pocket before the health insurer pays its share.  For example, policy-holders might have to pay a $500 deductible per year, before any of their health care is covered by the health insurer.  It may take several doctor’s visits or prescription refills before the insured person reaches the deductible and the insurance company starts to pay for care.  Furthermore, most policies do not apply co-pays for doctor’s visits or prescriptions against your deductible.

Co-payment: The amount that the insured person must pay out of pocket before the health insurer pays for a particular visit or service.  For example, an insured person might pay a $45 co-payment for a doctor’s visit, or to obtain a prescription.  A co-payment must be paid each time a particular service is obtained.

Coinsurance:  Instead of, or in addition to, paying a fixed amount up front (a co-payment), the co-insurance is a percentage of the total cost that insured person may also pay.  For example, the member might have to pay 20% of the cost of a surgery over and above a co-payment, while the insurance company pays the other 80%.  If there is an upper limit on coinsurance, the policy-holder could end up owing very little, or a great deal, depending on the actual costs of the services they obtain.

Exclusions:  Not all services are covered.  The insured are generally expected to pay the full cost of non-covered services out of their own pockets.

Coverage limits:  Some health insurance policies only pay for health care up to a certain dollar amount.  The insured person may be expected to pay any charges in excess of the health plan’s maximum payment for a specific service. In addition, some insurance company schemes have annual or lifetime coverage maxima.  In these cases, the health plan will stop payment when they reach the benefit maximum, and the policy-holder must pay all remaining costs.

Out-of-pocket maxima:  Similar to coverage limits, except that in this case, the insured person’s payment obligation ends when they reach the out-of-pocket maximum, and health insurance pays all further covered costs.  Out-of-pocket maxima can be limited to a specific benefit category (such as prescription drugs) or can apply to all coverage provided during a specific benefit year.

Capitation:  An amount paid by an insurer to a health care provider, for which the provider agrees to treat all members of the insurer.

In-Network Provider:  (U.S. term) A health care provider on a list of providers preselected by the insurer.  The insurer will offer discounted coinsurance or co-payments, or additional benefits, to a plan member to see an in-network provider.  Generally, providers in network are providers who have a contract with the insurer to accept rates further discounted from the “usual and customary” charges the insurer pays to out-of-network providers.

Prior Authorization:  A certification or authorization that an insurer provides prior to medical service occurring.  Obtaining an authorization means that the insurer is obligated to pay for the service, assuming it matches what was authorized.  Many smaller, routine services do not require authorization.

Explanation of Benefits:  A document that may be sent by an insurer to a patient explaining what was covered for a medical service, and how payment amount and patient responsibility amount were determined.

Prescription drug plans are a form of insurance offered through some health insurance plans.  In the U.S., the patient usually pays a copayment and the prescription drug insurance part or all of the balance for drugs covered in the formulary of the plan.  Such plans are routinely part of national health insurance programs.

For example, in the province of Quebec, Canada, prescription drug insurance is universally required as part of the public health insurance plan, but may be purchased and administered either through private or group plans, or through the public plan.

Some, if not most, health care providers in the United States will agree to bill the insurance company if patients are willing to sign an agreement that they will be responsible for the amount that the insurance company doesn’t pay.

The insurance company pays out of network providers according to “reasonable and customary” charges, which may be less than the provider’s usual fee.  The provider may also have a separate contract with the insurer to accept what amounts to a discounted rate or capitation to the provider’s standard charges.  It generally costs the patient less to use an in-network provider.


As you can see and are probably aware that Health Insurance can be very complicated.  In recent years in the U.S.A. we have had Obama Care.  Now, with a new president they are going to start a new plan called, Trump Care

It is very important to see what type of Health Insurance in available.  I am familiar with insurance programs and it is still somewhat confusing to me.  The ordinary person does not understand all the programs out there so needless to say your head spins when it comes to health insurance.  Especially when we have families to worry about this is a very serious matter.

This is the main reason that I have made this website and keep adding to it as health insurance changes.  Hopefully it will make it easier for you to make an educated decision for your Health Insurance. 







Send me an email with any questions that you may have.

Thank you,